Cognitive Process Dimensions

Taxonomy of Cognitive Process Dimensions 

Adapted from Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, & Wittrock (2001)

Cognitive Process

Description of learning

Associated verbs

Sample prompts

Remember

retrieve, recognize, and recall relevant facts / concepts.

cite, define, describe, draw, identify, indicate, label, list, name, outline, quote, recall, recite, recognize, reproduce, underline

    Identify correct vocabulary definitions; Recall definitions; Recite safety rules; Label a diagram from memory; Define terms ...

    Understand

    construct meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages.

    abstract, approximate, articulate, categorize, clarify, classify, compare, construct model, contrast, convert, depict graphically, differentiate, discuss, estimate, exemplify, explain, extend, extrapolate, factor, generalize, illustrate, infer, instantiate, interpret, map, match, paraphrase, predict, represent, summarize, translate 

    Explain the steps for [performing complex disciplinary task] in your own words; Give an example of each of the following…; Analyze [discipline-specific] data to...

    Apply

    use concepts or ideas to solve a specific problem.

    adapt, allocate, assign, carry out, complete, compute, construct, customize, demonstrate, derive, determine, dramatize, employ, execute, exercise,  graph, implement, manipulate, operate, personalize, plot, prepare, sequence, show, simulate, solve, transcribe, use

    Select the correct [theoretical] model to analyze a given data set; Illustrate the process for proper equipment use; Write an explanation about topic for others; Demonstrate [disciplinary-specific] techniques

    Analyze

    break material into constituent parts in order to discover relationships among parts and to the whole.

    appraise, attribute, break down, characterize, correlate, deconstruct, diagnose, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, dissect, distinguish, focus, illustrate, inventory, organize, parse, prioritize, query, select, separate, sequence, structure, transform

    Troubleshoot a problem with equipment; Distinguish between [theories / methods] within a disciplinary framework; Review a work of art in terms of form, performance, color, and texture

    Evaluate

    make judgments using criteria or standards.

    appraise, argue, assess, check, conclude, confirm, construct, counsel, critique, debate, defend, detect, determine, dispute, editorialize, judge, justify, measure, monitor, rank, rate, recommend, support, test, validate, verify

    Review a journal article; Write a letter to [stakeholder] expressing views on [discipline-specific concept]; Evaluate and recommend … based on given criteria; Judge the effectiveness of a sampling procedure

    Create

    generate and combine diverse components into a coherent and functional whole.

    animate, assemble, budget, code, compile, compose, cultivate, design, devise, facilitate, format, formulate, generate, hypothesize, imagine, improve, invent, modify, plan, portray, produce , program, propose, revise, rewrite

    Write an operations manual; Design a machine to perform a specific task; Create a plan to market a new product; Compose a musical piece, given specific guidelines

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