Bloom's Cognitive Processes Dimensions

Taxonomy of Cognitive Process Dimensions 

The table below is based on Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, & Wittrock, 2001). If you'd like a color poster of the verbs associated with Bloom's Cognitive Process Dimensions, see the link at the bottom of the page. 

Cognitive Process

Description of learning

Associated verbs

Sample prompts


retrieve, recognize, and recall relevant facts / concepts.

cite, define, describe, draw, identify, indicate, label, list, name, outline, quote, recall, recite, recognize, reproduce, underline

Identify correct vocabulary definitions; Recall definitions; Recite safety rules; Label a diagram from memory; Define terms ...


construct meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages.

abstract, approximate, articulate, categorize, clarify, classify, compare, construct model, contrast, convert, depict graphically, differentiate, discuss, estimate, exemplify, explain, extend, extrapolate, factor, generalize, illustrate, infer, instantiate, interpret, map, match, paraphrase, predict, represent, summarize, translate 

Explain the steps for [performing complex disciplinary task] in your own words; Give an example of each of the following…; Analyze [discipline-specific] data to...


use concepts or ideas to solve a specific problem.

adapt, allocate, assign, carry out, complete, compute, construct, customize, demonstrate, derive, determine, dramatize, employ, execute, exercise,  graph, implement, manipulate, operate, personalize, plot, prepare, sequence, show, simulate, solve, transcribe, use

Select the correct [theoretical] model to analyze a given data set; Illustrate the process for proper equipment use; Write an explanation about topic for others; Demonstrate [disciplinary-specific] techniques


break material into constituent parts in order to discover relationships among parts and to the whole.

appraise, attribute, break down, characterize, correlate, deconstruct, diagnose, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, dissect, distinguish, focus, illustrate, inventory, organize, parse, prioritize, query, select, separate, sequence, structure, transform

Troubleshoot a problem with equipment; Distinguish between [theories / methods] within a disciplinary framework; Review a work of art in terms of form, performance, color, and texture


make judgments using criteria or standards.

appraise, argue, assess, check, conclude, confirm, construct, counsel, critique, debate, defend, detect, determine, dispute, editorialize, judge, justify, measure, monitor, rank, rate, recommend, support, test, validate, verify

Review a journal article; Write a letter to [stakeholder] expressing views on [discipline-specific concept]; Evaluate and recommend … based on given criteria; Judge the effectiveness of a sampling procedure


generate and combine diverse components into a coherent and functional whole.

animate, assemble, budget, code, compile, compose, cultivate, design, devise, facilitate, format, formulate, generate, hypothesize, imagine, improve, invent, modify, plan, portray, produce , program, propose, revise, rewrite

Write an operations manual; Design a machine to perform a specific task; Create a plan to market a new product; Compose a musical piece, given specific guidelines