Defining Expectations for Student Learning

What do you expect students to do?

Articulating expectations

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Process Dimensions

  • Remember: learners retrieve, recognize, and recall relevant facts / concepts.
  • Associated verbs: define, describe, draw, identify, indicate, label, list, name, outline, quote, recite, reproduce, underline
  • Understand: learners construct meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages.
  • Associated verbs: calculate, defend, discuss,  distinguish, explain, expand, extend, give an example, interpret, paraphrase, restate, summarize, translate
  • Apply: learners use concepts or ideas to solve a specific problem.
  • Associated verbs: classify, compute, construct, complete, dramatize, demonstrate, execute, examine, illustrate, manipulate, operate, practice, prepare, show, solve, use
  • Analyze: learners break material into constituent parts in order to discover relationships among parts and to the whole.
  • Associated verbs: attribute, appraise, break down, compare, contrast, diagram, deconstruct, differentiate, distinguish, identify, illustrate, investigate, organize, relate, separate, sequence, test
  • Evaluate: learners make judgments using criteria or standards.
  • Associated verbs: argue, assess, confirm, construct, conclude, critique, debate, defend, dispute, editorialize, evaluate, judge, explain, interpret, justify, support, rate, recommend, verify
  • Create: learners combine diverse components into a coherent and functional whole.
  • Associated verbs: categorize, combine, compile, compose, construct, devise, design, generate, hypothesize, modify, imagine, improve, plan, predict, propose, write